Early in the age of affluence (富裕) that followed World War Ⅱ，an American retailing analyst named Victor Lebow proclaimed, “Our enormously productive economy...demands that we make consumption our way of life, that we convert the buying and use of goods into rituals, that we seek our spiritual satisfaction, our ego satisfaction, in consumption. We need things consumed, burned up, worn out, replaced and discarded at an ever increasing rate." �� Americans have responded to Lebow's call, and much of the world has followed. Consumption has becom#e a central pillar of life in industrial lands and is even embedded in social values. Opinion surveys in the world's two largest economics-Japan and the United States-show consumerist definitions of success becom#ing ever more prevalent.�� Overconsumption by the world's fortunate is an environmental problem unmatched in severity by anything but perhaps population growth. Their surging exploitation of resources threatens to exhaust or unalterably spoil forests, soils, water, air and climate.�� Ironically, high consumption may be a mixed blessing in human terms, too. The time-honored values of integrity of character, good work, friendship, family and com#munity have often been sacrificed in the rush to riches.�� Thus many in the industrial lands have a sense that their world of plenty is somehow hollow, that misled by a consumerist culture, they have been fruitlessly attempting to satisfy what are essentially social, psychological and spiritual needs with material things.�� Of course, the opposite of overconsumption, poverty, is no solution to either environmental or human problems. It is infinitely wo治疗间歇性癫痫病比较便宜的医院rse for people and bad for the natural world too. Dispossessed (被剥夺得一无所有的) peasants slash, and burn their way into the rain forests of Latin America, and hungry nomads (游牧民族) turn their herds out onto fragile African grassland, reducing it to desert.�� If environmental destruction results when people have either too little or too much, we are left to wonder how much is enough .What level of consumption can the earth support ?When dose having more cease to add noticeably to human satisfaction?
1. The emergence of the affluent society after World War II .
A) led to the reform of the retailing system
B) resulted in the worship of consumerism
C )ve rise to the dominance of the new egoism
D) gave birth to a new generation of upper class consumers
2. Apart from enormous productivity, another important impetus to high consumption is
A) the people's desire for a rise in their living standards
B) the concept that one's success is measured by how much they consume
C) the imbalance that has existed between production and consumption
D) the conversion of the sale of goods into rituals
3. Why does the author say high consumption is a mixed blessing?
A) Because poverty still exists in an affluent society.
B) Because overconsumption won't last long due to unrestricted population growth.
C) Because traditional rituals are often neglected in the process of modernization.
D) Because moral values are sacrificed in pursuit of material satisfaction.
4. According to the passage, consumerist culture .
A) will not alleviate poverty in wealthy countries<癫痫病都是怎么治疗的呢p>B) will not aggravate environmental problems
C) cannot thrive on a fragile economy
D) cannot satisfy human spiritual needs
5. It can be inferred from the passage that .
A) human spiritual needs should match material affluence
B) whether high consumption should be encouraged is still an issue
C) how to keep consumption at a reasonable level remains a problem
D) there is never an end to satisfying people's material needs
Although most of us believe that we com#municate almost exclusively with words, research has shown that nonverbal com#munication is at least as important. Gestures and tone of voice are important cues in determining others’ responses to us. Individuals who are not aware of information conveyed nonverbally are at a social disadvantage. In fact, children who fail to “read” such messages tend to be unpopular and underachievers. Children who are overeager or speak loudly, for example, may offend other children, or adults. When they fail to adjust their behavior on the basis of others’ responses, they aggravate the situation.
Adults may offend their peers also by their inattention to nonverbal responses. The sense of personal space varies among individuals and cultures. The salesman who puts his arm around the shoulder of a prospective buyer should realize the possible consequences of his gesture. physical contact conveys sense of intimacy that the relationship may or may not warrant. Standing very close to someone during a face-to-face conversation may produce a neg宁夏癫痫病治好要多少钱ative reaction. In fact, you may observe the person back away. practice and traditions are more permissive in some cultures than in ours. In Latin American countries between conversationalists is smaller than it is in the United States. In most situations, however, regardless of power often take or receive more space. picture a chairperson at a board or com#mittee meeting sitting at the head or com#manding center of the table. Think of the teacher whose large desk is surrounded by more space than the students’ smaller desks.
Tone of voice also conveys messages and emotions. “Beautiful” may be used to describe bouquet of roses or a black eye, but the tone of voice will not be the same. “Thanks a lot” can be said with genuine gratitude or with sarcasm.
Dog trainers report that dogs respond to tone of voice than to the particular words that are said. Dogs are often praised in a consistent tone of voice that may be slightly high-pitched and somewhat singsong. They will respond to this tone of voice with wagging tails even if the words don’t match.
6. The main point of the article is that____.
A. dogs and humans com#municate the same way.
B. gestures and tone of voice convey a great deal of information.
C. our system of com#munication is changing rapidly.
D. only human beings are capable of verbal com#munication.
7. Nonverbal com#munication is important for____.
A. interpersonal relationships
B. dog trainings
C. foreign travel
D. com#munication between humans and other animals
8. According to the article, com#munication problems arise when____.
A. people send the wrong si北京武警总医院癫痫科预约电话gnals
B. individual miss nonverbal cues
C. culture clash
D. people use the same signal to mean differently
9. The issue of personal space is related to____.
A. religious values
10. The author includes the example about dogs to show that_____.
A. dogs are important too
B. nonverbal com#munication occurs in varied situations
C. tone of voice affects different ranges of hearing
D. dogs are more capable of nonverbal com#munication than other animals
第一段中有这样一句话：Individuals who are not aware of information conveyed nonverbally are at a social disadvantage. 结合这句话以及后面段落中举出的例子，可以很容易判断出这一结论：如果人们忽略了非口头交流的暗示作用，就会引发交流上的问题和障碍